Research Article

Evaluation of unexplained clinical features of hepatic diseases through biopsies among hospitalized children: A cross-sectional study in Lahore, Pakistan

Ibtasam Ahmad, Muhammad Haris, Amnah Javed and Muhammad Azhar*

Published: 11 September, 2018 | Volume 3 - Issue 1 | Pages: 013-019

Objectives: There are variations in therapeutic regimens of different liver diseases. The accurate diagnosis ensures prompt recovery from these diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the underlying causes of unexplained signs and symptoms associated with liver diseases through biopsies.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in a public child care specialty of Lahore, Pakistan. The data was collected from medical records of the patients who were index hospitalized with unexplained clinical presentation of liver disease between 1st July, 2017 and 31st December, 2017. Data were analyzed by using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.), and Microsoft Excel (MS Office 2010).

Results: Overall, the records of 53 patients were selected for the study. Most of them were 11 to 15 years of age. The patients were presented with unexplained hepatomegaly (60.4%) and jaundice (40.7%) during index hospitalization which made them eligible for liver biopsy (LB). The findings of LB revealed that the underlying causes of liver diseases in most of the cases were metabolic (33.9%) and inflammatory disorders (22.6%). Majority of the patients were ≤4 years of age, however cryptogenic cirrhosis (39.1%) was commonly found in >10 years of age. Although most of the patients were suffering from metabolic disorders (p-value=0.07) and liver cirrhosis (p-value=0.08) but these were not statistically significant.

Conclusions: LB was beneficial in evaluating the etiologies of unexplained signs and symptoms of liver diseases. It was found that glycogen storage diseases and liver cirrhosis were the most common etiologies of liver diseases among pediatric patients. But etiologies like metabolic and inflammatory diseases were insignificantly associated with gender.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jcicm.1001013 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


Liver; Inflammatory disorder; Metabolic disorder; Biopsy; Etiology; Cirrhosis


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