Abstract

Review Article

Will the pill help defeat the coronavirus?

Igor Klepikov*

Published: 13 April, 2021 | Volume 6 - Issue 1 | Pages: 001-005

The onset of the pandemic has caused widespread concern about the rapid spread of the infection and serious concern about the lack of specific treatment for it. Calls and demands for strict compliance with sanitary and anti-epidemic measures, a sharp reduction in direct contacts and movements of people with the introduction of quarantine measures in large regions and even countries have become a familiar modern reality. All these efforts do not yet allow us to see and feel their positive results, and the next wave of infection destroys hopes for the likelihood of achieving rapid and complete success in the fight against this evil. At the same time, a detailed analysis of the material accumulated during this period allows us to identify the most problematic links in the process of diagnostics and providing care to such patients and to note the reasons that require priority solutions.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.jcicm.1001032 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF

References

  1. Lipman M, Chambers RC, Singer M, Brown JS. SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: clinical picture of COVID-19 and implications for research. Thorax 2020; 75: 614-616. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32461230/
  2. Stone JH, Frigault MJ, Serling-Boyd NJ, Fernandes AD, Harvey L, et al. Efficacy of Tocilizumab in Patients Hospitalized with Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020; 383: 2333-2344. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33085857/
  3. Ackermann M, Verleden SE, Kuehnel M, et al. Pulmonary Vascular Endothelialitis, Thrombosis, and Angiogenesis in Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020; 383: 120-128. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32437596/
  4. Martines RB, Ritter JM, Matkovic E, Gary J, BollwegBC, et al. COVID-19 Pathology Working Group (2020). Pathology and Pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 Associated with Fatal Coronavirus Disease, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020; 26: 2005-2015. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32437316/
  5. Englisch CN, Tschernig T, Flockerzi F, Meier C, Bohle RM. Lesions in the lungs of fatal corona virus disease Covid-19. Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger. 2020; 234: 151657. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33279630/
  6. Beigel JH, Tomashek KM, Dodd LE, et al. Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19 — Final Report. N Engl J Med. 2020; 383:1813-1826. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32445440/
  7. Simonovich VA, Pratx LDP, Scibona P, Beruto MV, Vallone MG. A Randomized Trial of Convalescent Plasma in Covid-19 Severe Pneumonia. 2020; N Engl J Med. 384: 619-629. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33232588/
  8. Mitjà O, Corbacho-Monné M, Ubals M, et al. A Cluster-Randomized Trial of Hydroxychloroquine for Prevention of Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020; 384: 417-427. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33289973/
  9. Solidarity Trial Consortium. Repurposed Antiviral Drugs for Covid-19 — Interim WHO Solidarity Trial Results. 2020.
  10. Huang E, Jordan SC. Tocilizumab for Covid-19 — The Ongoing Search for Effective Therapies. December 10, 2020. N Engl J Med. 2020; 383:2387-2388. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33296566/
  11. Liapikou A, Rosales-Mayor E, Torres A. The management of severe community acquired pneumonia in the ICU. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2014; 8: 293-303. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24838089/
  12. Kim JW, Kim JJ, Yang HJ, et al. The Prognostic Factors of Pneumonia with Septic Shock in Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department. Korean J Crit Care Med. 2015; 30: 258-264.
  13. Jason P, Dean NC, Guo Q, Kuan WS, Lim HF, et al. Severe community-acquired pneumonia: timely management measures in the first 24 hours. Crit Care. 2016: 20: 237. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27567896/
  14. Vidal A, Santos L. Comorbidities impact on the prognosis of severe acute community-acquired pneumonia. Porto Biomed J. 2017; 2: 265-272. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32289091/
  15. Ceccato A, Torres A. Sepsis and community-acquired pneumonia. Ann Res Hosp. 2018; 2: 7.
  16. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Severe_acute_respiratory_syndrome
  17. Rawson TM, Moore LSP, Zhu N, Ranganathan N, Skolimowska K, et al. Bacterial and fungal co-infection in individuals with coronavirus: A rapid review to support COVID-19 antimicrobial prescribing. Clin Infect Dis. 2020; 71: 2459-2468. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32358954/
  18. Beović B, Doušak M, Ferreira-Coimbra J, Nadrah K, Rubulotta F, et al. Antibiotic use in patients with COVID-19: a ‘snapshot’ Infectious Diseases. International Research Initiative (ID-IRI) survey. J Antimicro Chemotherapy. 75: 3386-3390. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32766706/
  19. Kim D, Quinn J, Pinsky B, Shah NH, Brown I.. Rates of co-infection between SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory pathogens. JAMA. 2020; 323: 2085–2086. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32293646/
  20. Ocampo-Torres M. Characterization of Mortality by Covid-19 in a Health System in Central Mexico. EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine. 2020; 9: 20-22.
  21. Boëlle PY, Delory T, Maynadier X, Janssen C, Piarroux R, et al. Trajectories of Hospitalization in COVID-19 Patients: An Observational Study in France. J Clin Med. 2020; 9: 3148. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33003375/
  22. Seligman R, Seligman BGS. Pandemic in the 21st Century. The Challenge of COVID-19”. EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine. 2020; 9: 30-31.
  23. Grasselli G, Zangrillo A, Zanella A, Antonelli M, Cabrini L, et al. Baseline characteristics and outcomes of 1591 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to ICUs of the Lombardy region, Italy. JAMA. 2020; 323: 1574-1581. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32250385/
  24. Richardson S, Hirsch JS, Narasimhan M, Crawford JM, McGinn T, et al. Presenting Characteristics, Comorbidities, and Outcomes Among 5700 Patients Hospitalized With COVID-19 in the New York City Area. JAMA. 2020; 323: 2052-2059. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32320003/
  25. WHO classification and treatment of childhood pneumonia at health facilities. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2014. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/137319/9789241507813_eng.pdf
  26. Jehan F, Nisar I, Kerai S, Balouch B, Brown N, et al. Randomized Trial of Amoxicillin for Pneumonia in Pakistan. N Engl J Med. 2020; 383: 24-34. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32609980/
  27. Chang AB, Grimwood K. Antibiotics for Childhood Pneumonia — Do We Really Know How Long to Treat? N Engl J Med. 2020; 383: 77-79. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32609987/
  28. Ginsburg AS, Mvalo T, Nkwopara E, McCollum ED, Phiri M, et al. Amoxicillin for 3 or 5 Days for Chest-Indrawing Pneumonia in Malawian Children. N Engl J Med. 2020; 383: 13-23. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7233470/
  29. Klepikov I. Acute pneumonia. New doctrine and first treatment results. LAP-Lambert Academic Publishing. 2020.
  30. Lai J, Ma S, Wang Y, Cai Z, Hu J, et al. Factors associated with mental health outcomes among health care workers exposed to coronavirus disease 2019. JAMA Netw Open. 2020; 3: e203976-e203976. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7090843/
  31. Leiter RE. Reentry. N Engl J Med. 2020; 383: e141. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33053276/
  32. Rosenquist JN. The Stress of Bayesian Medicine — Uncomfortable Uncertainty in the Face of Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020; 384: 7-9. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33027563/
  33. Chen X. Avoiding Defensive Medicine among Pandemic. EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care. 2020; 4: 49-53.
  34. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflammation
  35. Chandrasoma P, Taylor CR. Part A. "General Pathology", Section II. "The Host Response to Injury", Chapter 3. "The Acute Inflammatory Response", sub-section "Cardinal Clinical Signs"". Concise Pathology (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill. 2005.

Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More